Zika virus disease cases in United States, 2015–2016 (as of June 08, 2016)

Zika Virus:  Map of laboratory-confirmed cases reported to ArboNET by state or territory — United States, 2015–2016 (as of June 08, 2016)

According to the CDC… “Zika virus disease (Zika) is a disease caused by the Zika virus, which is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after being bitten by an infected mosquito. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, as well as other severe fetal brain defects.” 

What we know

  • No vaccine exists to prevent Zika virus disease (Zika).
  • Prevent Zika by avoiding mosquito bites (see below).
  • Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus bite mostly during the daytime.
  • Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus also spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.
  • Zika virus can be spread during sex by a man infected with Zika to his sex partners.

For more information… 

  1. Protect Yourself Against Zika Virus
  2. Zika – The Basics of the Virus and How to Protect Against It
  3. Mosquito Bite Prevention
  4. Testing Algorithm for a Pregnant Woman with Possible Exposure to Zika Virus


What are the Adverse Health Effects that Lead Exposure
The Adverse Health Effects with Lead Exposure

According to the Mayo Clinic, lead poisoning can be hard to detect — even people who seem healthy can have high blood levels of lead. Signs and symptoms usually don’t appear until dangerous amounts have accumulated. Sources of Lead – was also once a key ingredient in paint and gasoline and is still used in batteries, solder, pipes, pottery, roofing materials and some cosmetics.

Exposure to Lead –  to even low levels of lead can cause damage over time, especially in children. The greatest risk is to brain development, where irreversible damage may occur. Higher levels can damage the kidneys and nervous system in both children and adults. Very high lead levels may cause seizures, unconsciousness and possibly death.

Lead Poisoning Symptoms in Children – The signs and symptoms of lead poisoning in children may include:

  • Developmental delay

    Flint, Michigan, Lead Toxic Water
  • Learning difficulties
  • Irritability
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Sluggishness and fatigue
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Hearing loss

Lead Poisoning Symptoms in Newborns – Babies who are exposed to lead before birth may experience:

  • Learning difficulties
  • Slowed growth

Lead Poisoning Treatment – For more-severe cases, your doctor may recommend:

  • Chelation therapy. In this treatment, you take a medication that binds with the lead so that it’s excreted in your urine.
  • EDTA therapy. Doctors treat adults with lead levels greater than 45 mcg/dL of blood with one or more of three drugs, most commonly a chemical called ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Depending on your lead level, you may need more than one treatment. In such severe cases, however, it may not be possible to reverse damage that has already occurred.

Lead Poisoning May Have Multi-Generational Effects – An NIEHS-funded study showed that mothers with high neonatal blood levels of lead — indicating that the mothers themselves experienced lead exposure in the womb — can bring about epigenetic changes in their unborn children. This study is one of the first to show that an environmental exposure in pregnant mothers can have an epigenetic effect on DNA methylation in their grandchildren.

Mayo Clinic – Lead Poisoning  / National Library of Medicine / National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences / CNN- Flint Water Crisis Fast Facts