Ebola virus outbreak

(Reuters) – Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni on Monday advised people to avoid shaking hands, casual sex and do-it-yourself burials to reduce the chance of contracting the deadly Ebola virus after an outbreak killed 14 people and put many more at risk.


The incubation period can range from 2 to 21 days but is generally 5–10 days. Symptoms are varied and often appear suddenly.

Initial symptoms

  1. Include high fever (at least 38.8°C; 101.8°F)
  2. Severe headache
  3. Muscle, joint, or abdominal pain
  4. Severe weakness
  5. Exhaustion
  6. Sore throat
  7. Nausea
  8. Dizziness
  9. Internal and external bleeding.

Before an outbreak is suspected, these early symptoms are easily mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery influenza, or various bacterial infections, which are all far more common and reliably less fatal.

Ebola may progress to:

  • Diarrhea
  • Dark or bloody feces
  • Vomiting blood
  • Red eyes due to distension and hemorrhage of sclerotic arterioles
  • Petechia, maculopapular rash, and purpura.
  • Other, secondary symptoms include hypotension (low blood pressure)
  • Hypovolemia
  • Tachycardia

The interior bleeding is caused by a reaction between the virus and the platelets that produces a chemical that will cut cell-size holes into the capillary walls.


Methods of diagnosis of Ebola include testing saliva and urine samples. Ebola is diagnosed with an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) test.


There are currently no proven Ebola treatment options that can kill the Ebola virus. However, Ebola treatment can include the following supportive care such as:

  1. Intravenous (IV) fluids to maintain fluids and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride
  2. Oxygen and devices that help with breathing
  3. Medications to control fever, help the blood clot, and maintain blood pressure
  4. Antibiotics to prevent secondary infections from bacteria
  5. Good nursing care



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